A Short Treatise on Man

Thomas Aquinas

Edited by J E Bradburn.

Of Man Who is composed of a Spiritual and a Corporeal Substance:

and in the First Place, concerning What Belongs to the Essence of the Soul

Title: Michael Angelo Having treated of the spiritual and of the corporeal creature (physical body), we now proceed to treat of man, who is composed of a spiritual and corporeal substance, http://www.godsplan.org.uk/earthlytabernacle.htm. We shall treat first of the nature of man, and secondly of his origin.

Now the theologian considers the nature of man in relation to the soul; but not in relation to the body, except in so far as the body has relation to the soul. Hence the first object of our consideration will be the soul http://www.godsplan.org.uk/hsmb.htm. 

To seek the nature of the soul, we must premise that the soul is defined as the first principle of life in those things which live: for we call living things animate, and those things which have no life inanimate. Now life is shown principally by two actions, knowledge and movement. The philosophers of old, who were unable to rise above their imagination, supposed that the principle of these actions was something corporeal: for they asserted that only bodies were real things; and what is not corporeal is nothing: hence they maintained that the soul is something corporeal. This opinion can be proved to be false in many ways; but we shall make use of only one proof, based on universal and certain principles, which shows clearly that the soul is not a body.

It is manifest that not every principle of vital action is a soul, for then the eye would be a soul, as it is a principle of vision; and the same might be applied to the other instruments of the soul: however, it is the first principle of life, which we call the soul.

 

Michelangelo

 
Genesis 2:7 (KJV) And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

 

Now, though a body may be a principle of life, as the heart is a principle to life in an animal, yet nothing corporeal can be the first principle of life. For it is clear that to be a principle of life, or to be a living thing, does not belong to a body as such; since, if that were the case, every body would be a living thing, or a principle of life. Therefore a body is competent to be a living thing or even a principle of life, as such a body. Now that it is actually such a body, it owes to some principle which is called its act. Therefore the soul, which is the first principle of life, is not a body, but an act of a body.

 

1 Corinthians 15:50 Paul (KJV) Now this I say, brethren,” that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.”

When we cease to live we are buried in the earth (or these days cremated), the remains are discovered by archeologists such as bones, and the flesh decays and goes back to the earth.

 

Ecclesiastes 12:7 (KJV) Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.

 

As everything which is in motion must be moved by something else, a process which cannot be prolonged indefinitely, we must allow that every mover is moved. For since to be moved is passed from potentiality to actuality, the mover gives what it  has to the thing moved, inasmuch as it causes it to be in act. There is a mover which is altogether immovable, and not moved either essentially, or accidentally; and such a mover can cause an invariable movement. There is, however, another kind of mover, which, though not moved essentially, is moved accidentally; and for this reason it does not cause an invariable movement; such a mover, is the soul. There is, again, another mover, which is moved essentially—namely the body. And because the philosophers of old believed that nothing existed but bodies, they maintained that every mover is moved directly, and is a body.

               

‘Whoever understands that the nature of the soul is that of a substance and not that of a body, will see that those who maintain the corporeal (physical body) nature of the soul are led astray through associating with the soul those things without which they are unable to think of any nature—i.e., imaginary pictures of corporeal things.’  Therefore the nature of the human intellect is not only incorporeal, but it is also a substance, that is, something subsistent (existing).

       http://godsplan.org.uk/fleshcovering.htm

Through prayer to God may our prayers be heard, It may be seen from the image on the left the corporeal makeup of the body, which incorporates the soul (Holy Spirit) and the mind. These two alone communicate our every thought to the Creator: Genesis 2:7 KJV And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. and are realised. The two working in conjunction with each other, and the corporeal flesh, envisages a sublime trouble free existence while on this fallen earth, to make your choice.

However; if the corporeal body is led by the corporeal brain, it invokes all the ills we are aware of, and far too many to go into here. So the simple choice to make is:

 

1.      Do we let God heal, and look after us? After all He created us. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/dispensationalplan.htm

2.      Or do we follow the spirit of Satan who rebelled against God; into chaos, starvation, war, misery, and death? http://www.godsplan.org.uk/markofcain.htm

 

This is the choice every human being on this fallen earth has before Jehovah’s clock (time) runs out. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/jehovah%27sword.htm

We know which choice the majority will take, and that is completely up to them; all I can do is present to all in sundry, diverse knowledge, and TRUTH, by the means of this                 website—the rest is up to you. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/Index.htm

It must necessarily be allowed that the principle of intellectual operation which we call the soul is a principle both incorporeal (without a physical body) and subsistent (existing). For it is clear that by means of the intellect man can have knowledge of all corporeal things (the flesh, and workings therein). Now whatever knows certain things cannot have any of them in its own nature; because that which is in it naturally would impede the knowledge of anything else.

Thus we observe that a sick man’s tongue being vitiated (faulty) by a feverish and bitter humour (absurd), is insensible to anything sweet, and everything seems bitter to it. Therefore, if the intellectual principle contained the nature of a body it would be unable to know all bodies. Now, all bodies have its own determinate nature. Therefore it is impossible for the intellectual principle to be a body. It is likewise impossible for it to understand by means of a bodily organ; since the determinate nature of that organ would impede knowledge of bodies; as when a certain determinate colour is not only in the pupil of the eye, but also in a glass vase, the liquid in the vase seems to be of that same colour.

Therefore the intellectual principle which we call the mind or the intellect has an operation per se apart from the body. Now only that which subsists (exists) can have an operation per se. For nothing can operate but what is actual; wherefore a thing operates according as it is; for which reason we do not say that heat imparts heat, but that what is hot gives heat.

We must conclude, therefore, that the human soul, which is called the Holy Spirit (Gen 2:7 above) and the intellect or the mind, is something incorporeal (without a physical body) and subsistent (existing).

That is to say in a simpler language:

1.           The brain, which is obviously corporeal, controls the respiratory functions of the flesh, or body, as well as all muscles, organs, heart, and blood. This is fallen man http://godsplan.org.uk/serpentofgenesis3.htm.

2.           The lower white area between the lungs is the Holy Spirit, which guides into all TRUTH, This is Spiritual man. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/earthlytabernacle.htm

3.           The white area in the brain is the mind from where dreams, inspiration, understanding etc come from; it is also known as the intellect. The way back to God  http://www.godsplan.org.uk/perfection.htm.

 

When numbers 2 & 3 are unused, it leaves the brain to malfunction by overloading it with responsibilities; leading to nervous breakdowns, anxiety, and many other mental problems.

When numbers 2 & 3 are synchronised, the Brain (1) can get on with functioning, keeping us well, and alive. They are used to contact God through prayer, love, and devotion. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/deathswallowedup.htm

It could also be said that 2 & 3 are the telephone communication line to God the Father. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/spiritualmaterial.htm.

 

Colossians 2:8 (KJV) ‘Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.’

 

As the human soul is part is a part of human nature, it can indeed be called this particular thing, in the first sense, as being something subsistent; but not in the second, for in this sense, what is composed of body and soul is said to be this particular thing. The body is necessary for the action of the intellect, not as its origin of action, but on the part of the object; for the phantasm (something that exists only in a person's mind) is to the object as colour is to the sight. Neither does such a dependence on the body prove the intellect to be non-subsistent; otherwise it would follow that an animal is non-subsistent, since it requires external objects of the senses in order to perform its act of perception. 

 

The assertion the soul is man, “I for instance” am not a soul, but composed of soul and body http://www.godsplan.org.uk/earthlytabernacle.htm. I say this, forasmuch as some held that the form alone belongs to the species, while matter is part of the individual, and not of the species. This is simply not true; and is an indication of the absurd classical teaching. To the nature of the species belongs what the definition signifies; and in natural things the definition does not signify the form only, but the form and the matter. Hence in natural things the matter is part of the species; not, indeed, signate matter (identification), which is the principle of individuality; but the common matter. For as it belongs to the notion of this particular man to be composed of this soul, of this flesh, and of these bones; so it belongs to the notion of man to be composed of soul, flesh, and bones; for whatever belongs in common to the substance of all the individuals contained under a given species, must also belong to the substance of the species.

It may also be understood in this sense, that this soul is this man; and this could be held if it were supposed that the operation of the sensitive soul were proper to it, apart from the body; because in that case all the operations which are attributed to man would belong to the soul only: and whatever performs the operations of a man is man. But it has been shown above that sensation is not the operation of the soul only. Since, then, sensation is an operation of man, but not proper to him, it is clear that man is not a soul only, but something composed of body and soul http://www.godsplan.org.uk/earthlytabernacle.htm.

 

Whether the Soul is Composed of Matter and form?

The soul has no matter. We may consider this question in two ways:

·        First, from the notion of a soul in general; for it belongs to the notion of a soul (an individual's conception or impression of something known, experienced, or imagined) to be the form of a body. Now, either it is a form by virtue of itself, in its entirety, or by virtue of some part of itself, If by virtue of itself in its entirety, then it is impossible that any part of it should be matter, if by matter we understand something purely potential: for a form, as such, is an act, since potentiality is repugnant to actuality as being opposite to. If, however, it be a form by virtue of a part of itself, then we call that part the soul: and that matter which it actualises first, we call the primary animate.

·        Secondly, we may proceed from the specific notion of the human soul, inasmuch as it is intellectual. For it is clear that whatever is received into something is received according to the condition of the recipient. Now a thing is known in as far as its form is in the knower. But the intellectual soul knows a thing in its nature absolutely: for instance, it knows a stone absolutely as a stone; and therefore the form of a stone absolutely, as to its proper formal idea, is in the intellectual soul. Therefore the intellectual soul itself is an absolute form. For if the intellectual soul were composed of matter and form, the forms of it would be received into it as individuals, and so it would only know the individual:  Luke 13:27 (KJV) But He shall say, “I tell you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me, all ye workers of iniquity. just as it happens with the sensitive powers which receive forms in a corporeal organ; since matter is the principle by which forms are individualised. It follows, therefore, that the intellectual soul, and every intellectual substance which has knowledge of forms absolutely, is exempt from composition of matter and form.

http://www.godsplan.org.uk/Fig%20tree%20Part%201.htm  http://www.godsplan.org.uk/Fig%20tree%20Part%202.htm

 

Whether the Human Soul is Incorruptible?

 

We must assert that the intellectual principle which we call the human soul is incorruptible. For a thing may be corrupted in two ways: per se, and accidentally.

 

1.      Now it is impossible for any substance to be generated or corrupted accidentally, that is, by the generation or corruption of something else. For generation and corruption belong to a thing, just as existence belongs to it, which is acquired by generation and lost be corruption. Therefore, whatever has existence par se (oneself; intrinsically) cannot be generated or corrupted except per se; while things which do not subsist, such as accidents, and material forms, acquire existence or lose it through the generation or corruption of composite things (made up of disparate (different) or separate parts or elements). Now it was shown above that the souls of brutes, (a nonhuman creature; beast).  2 Peter 2:12 (KJV) But these, as natural brute beasts, made to be taken and destroyed, speak evil of the things that they understand not; and shall utterly perish in their own corruption;  are not self-subsistent, whereas the human soul is  http://www.godsplan.org.uk/markofcain.htm; so that the souls of brutes are corrupted, when their bodies are corrupted; while the human soul could not be corrupted unless it were corrupted per se  http://godsplan.org.uk/serpentofgenesis3.htm. This indeed is impossible; not only as regards the human soul, but also as regards anything subsistent that is a form alone. For it is clear that what belongs to a thing by virtue of itself is inseparable from it; but existence belongs to a form, which is an act, by virtue of itself. Wherefore matter acquires actual existence as it acquires the form; while it is corrupted so far as the form is separated from it. But it is impossible for a form to be separated from itself; and therefore it is impossible for a subsistent form to cease to exist http://www.godsplan.org.uk/jehovah%27skingdom.htm. 

2.      Granted even that the soul is composed of matter and form, as some pretend, we should nevertheless have to maintain that the soul is incorruptible, 1 Corinthians 15:50 (KJV)  Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.   Ecclesiastes 12:7 (KJV) Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit [soul] shall return unto God who gave it.  http://www.godsplan.org.uk/isgodthetruth%20.htm. For corruption is found only where there is contrariety (something contrary); since generation and corruption are from contraries and into contraries. Wherefore the heavenly bodies, since they have no matter subject to contrariety are incorruptible.  http://www.godsplan.org.uk/jehovah%27sword.htm Now there can be no one contrariety in the intellectual soul; for it receives according to the manner of its existence, and those things it receives are without contrariety; for the notion even of contraries are not themselves contrary, since contraries belong to the same knowledge. Therefore it is impossible for the intellectual soul to be corruptible (but only the flesh, blood and bones) http://www.godsplan.org.uk/earthlytabernacle.htm.  Moreover we may take a sign of this from the fact that everything naturally aspires to existence after its own manner. Now in things that have knowledge, desire ensues upon knowledge. The senses indeed do not know existence, except under the conditions of here and now on this fallen earth, whereas the intellect apprehends existence absolutely, and for all time; so that everything that has an intellect naturally desires always to exist. Therefore every intellectual substance is incorruptible.                                    

 

Of the Union of Body (Brain) and Soul (Intellect)

Whether the Intellectual Principle is United to the Body As its Form?

 

We must assert that the intellect which is the principle of intellectual operation is the form of the human body. For that whereby primarily anything acts is a form of the thing to which the act is to be attributed: for instance, that whereby a body is primarily healed is health and that whereby what the soul knows primarily is knowledge; hence health is a form of the body (Brain), and knowledge is a form of the (Soul). 

 

1.      The brain, which is obviously corporeal, controls the respiratory functions of the flesh, or body, as well as all muscles, organs, heart, and blood. This is fallen man http://godsplan.org.uk/serpentofgenesis3.htm.

2.      The lower white area between the lungs is the Holy Spirit, which guides into all TRUTH, This is Spiritual man. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/earthlytabernacle.htm 

3.   The white area in the brain is the mind from where dreams, inspiration, understanding etc come from; it is also known as the intellect. The way back to God http://www.godsplan.org.uk/perfection.htm

 

When numbers 2 & 3 are unused, it leaves the brain to malfunction by overloading it with responsibilities; leading to nervous breakdowns, anxiety, and many other mental problems.

When numbers 2 & 3 are synchronised, the Brain (1) can get on with functioning, keeping us well, and alive. They are used to contact God through prayer, love, and devotion. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/deathswallowedup.htm 

It could also be said that 2 & 3 are the telephone communication line to God the Father. http://www.godsplan.org.uk/spiritualmaterial.htm.

 

The reason is because nothing acts except so far as it is in act; wherefore a thing acts by what whereby it is in act. Now it is clear that the first thing by which the body lives is the soul, and as life appears through various operations in different degrees of living things, that whereby we primarily perform each of all these vital actions in the soul; for the soul is the primary principle of our nourishment, sensation and local movement; and likewise of our understanding. Therefore this principle by which we primarily understand, whether it be called the intellect or the intellectual soul, is the form of the body.

But if anyone says that the intellectual soul is not the form of the body he must first explain how it is that this action of understanding is the action of this particular man; for each person is conscious that it is himself who understands.

For this reason, that it is one and the same man who is conscious both that he understands, and that he senses. But one cannot sense without a body: therefore the body must be some part of man. It follows therefore that the intellect by which Socrates understands is a part of Socrates, so that in some way it is united to the body of Socrates.

Some, tried to maintain that the intellect is united to the body as its motor; and hence that the intellect and body form one thing so that the act of the intellect could be attributed to the whole. This is, however, absurd for many reasons.

1.      First, because the intellect does not move the body except through the appetite, the movement of which presupposes the operation of the intellect. The reason therefore, why man understands is not because he is moved by his intellect, but rather, contrariwise, he is moved by his intellect because he understands.

2.      Secondly, because, since man is an individual in a nature of one essence composed of matter and form, if the intellect be not the form, it follows it must be outside the essence, and then the intellect is then to the whole man as a motor to the thing moved. Whereas the act of intellect remains in the agent, and does not pass into something else, as does the action of heating. Therefore the action of understanding cannot be attributed to man for the reason that he is moved by his intellect.

3.      Thirdly, because the action of a motor is never attributed to the thing moved, except as to an instrument; as the action of a carpenter to a saw. Therefore if understanding is attributed to man , as the action of what moves him, it follows it is attributed to him as an instrument. Understanding is not possible through a corporeal instrument.

4.      Because, although the action of a part be attributed to the whole, as the action of the eye is attributed to a man; yet it is never attributed to another part, except perhaps indirectly; for we do not say that the hand sees because the eye sees. Therefore if the intellect in man is united in the above manner, the action of the intellect cannot be attributed to man. If, however, man be a whole composed of a union of the intellect with whatever else belongs to man , and still the intellect be united to those other things only as a motor,  it follows that man is not one absolutely, for a thing is a being according as it is one.

 

The same can be clearly shown from the nature of the human species. For the nature of each thing is shown by its operation. Now the proper operation of man as man is to understand; because he thereby surpasses all animals. The ultimate happiness of man must consist in this operation as properly belonging to him. Man must therefore derive his species from that which is the principle of operation. But the species of anything is derived from its form. It follows therefore that the intellectual principle is the proper form of man.

But we must observe that the nobler a form is, the more it rises above corporeal matter, the less it is merged in matter, and the more it excels matter by its power and its operation; hence we find that the form of a mixed body has another operation not caused by the elemental qualities. And the higher we advance in the nobility of forms, the more that we find that the power of the form excels the elementary matter; as the vegetative soul excels the form of the metal, and the sensitive soul excels the vegetative soul. Now the human soul is the highest and noblest of forms. Wherefore it excels corporeal matter in its power by the fact that it has an operation and a power in which corporeal matter has no share whatever. This power is called the intellect.

 

It is well to remark that if anyone holds that the soul is composed of matter and form, it would follow that in no way could the soul be the form of the body. For since the form is an act, and matter is only in potentiality, that which is composed of matter and form cannot be the form of another by virtue of itself as a whole. But if it is a form by virtue of some part of itself, then that part which is the form we call the soul, and that of which is the form we call the primary animate, as was said before.

It is separate indeed according to its intellectual power, because the intellectual power does not belong to a corporeal organ, as the power of seeing is the act of the eye; for understanding is an act which cannot be performed by a corporeal organ, like the act of seeing. But it exists in matter so far as the soul itself, to which this power belongs, is the form of the body, and the term of human generation. The intellect is separate, because it is not the faculty of a corporeal organ.

From this it is clear how we answer the objections put forward: since, in order that man may be able to understand all things by means of his intellect, and that his intellect may understand immaterial things and universals, it is sufficient that the intellectual power be not the act of the body.

 

Whether in Man There is Another Form Besides the Intellectual Soul?

Of one thing there is but one substantial being. But the substantial form gives substantial being. Therefore of one thing there is but one substantial form But the soul is the substantial form of man. Therefor it is impossible for there to be in man another substantial form besides the intellectual soul.

If we suppose that the intellectual soul is not united to the body as its form, but only as its motor, as the Platonists maintain. It would necessarily follow that in man there is another substantial form, by which the body is established in its being movable by the soul. If, however, the intellectual soul be united to the body as its substantial form, as we have said above, it is impossible for another substantial form besides the intellectual soul to be found in man. This is why Christ said; “let both grow until the harvest, lest you pull up the Tares with the Wheat” http://www.godsplan.org.uk/wheatandtares.htm.   http://www.godsplan.org.uk/parables.htm

 

 

Matthew 13:30 (KJV) Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into My barn.”

 

image003In order to make this evident, we must consider that the substantial form differs from the accidental form in this, that the accidental form does not make a thing to be simply, but to be such, as heat does not make a thing to be simply, but only to be hot. Therefore by the coming of the accidental form a thing is not said to be made or generated simply, but to be made such, or to be in some particular condition; and in like manner, when an accidental form is removed, a thing is said to be corrupted, not simply but relatively (in comparison with something else) http://www.godsplan.org.uk/markofcain.htm. Now the substantial form gives being simply; therefore by its coming a thing is said to be generated simply; and by its removal to be corrupted simply.

Whence, we must conclude, that there is no other substantial form in man besides the intellectual soul; and that the soul, as it virtually contains the sensitive and nutritive souls, so does it contain all inferior forms, and itself alone does whatever the imperfect forms do in other things. The same is to be said of the sensitive soul in brute animals, and of the nutritive (nourishing) soul in plants, and universally of all more perfect forms with regard to the imperfect.

This quality of the mixture is the proper disposition for the substantial form of the mixed body.

 

There are five genera (general) of powers of the soul. Of these three are called souls. The other three are called modes of living. The reason of this diversity lies in the various souls being distinguished accordingly as the operation of the soul transcends the operation of the corporeal nature in various ways; for the whole corporeal nature is subject to the soul, and is related to it as its matter and instrument. There exists therefore, an operation of the soul which so far extends the corporeal nature that it is not even performed by any corporeal organ; and such is the operation of the rational Soul. Below this this, there is another operation of the soul, which is indeed performed through a corporeal organ, but not through a corporeal quality, and this is the operation of the sensitive soul; for though hot and cold, wet and dry, and other such corporeal qualities are required for the work of the senses, yet they are not required in such a way that the operation of the senses takes place by virtue of such qualities; but only for the disposition of the organ. The lowest of the operations of the soul is that which is performed by a corporeal organ (the brain), and by virtue of a corporeal quality. yet this transcends the operation of the corporeal nature; because the movements of bodies are caused by an extrinsic principle, while these operations are from an intrinsic principle; for this is common to all the operations of the soul; since every animate thing, in some way, moves itself. Such is the operation of the vegetative soul; for digestion, and what follows, is caused instrumentally by the action of heat.

Now the powers of the soul are distinguished generically by their objects. For the higher a power is, the more universal is the object to which it extends. But the object of the soul’s operation may be considered in a triple order. For in the soul there is a power the object of which is only the body that is united to that soul; the powers of this genus are called vegetative, for the vegetative power acts only on the body to which the soul is united. There is another genus in the powers of the soul, which genus regards a more universal object—namely, every sensible body, not only the body to which the soul is united. And there is yet another genus in the powers of the soul, which genus regards a still more universal object—namely, not only the sensible body, but all being in universal. Wherefore it is evident that the latter two genera of the soul’s powers have an operation in regard not merely to that which is united to them, but also to something extrinsic (God). Now, since whatever operates must in some way be united to the object about which it operates, it follows of necessity that this something extrinsic, which is the object of the soul’s operation, must be related to the soul in a twofold manner.

 

1.      First, inasmuch as this something extrinsic has a natural aptitude to be united to the soul, and to be by its like in the soul. In this way there are two kinds of powers—namely, the sensitive in regard to the less common object—the sensible body; and the intellectual, in regard to the most common object—universal being.

2.      Secondly, forasmuch as the soul itself has an inclination and tendency to the something extrinsic. And in this way there are again two kinds of powers in the soul: one—the appetitive in respect of which the soul is referred to something extrinsic as to an end http://godsplan.org.uk/greattribulation2.htm, which is first in the intention; the other—the locomotive power—in respect of which the soul is referred to something extrinsic as to the term[ination] of its operation and movement; for every animal is moved for the purpose of realising its desires and intentions.

 

The modes of living are distinguished according to the degrees of living things. There are some living things in which there exists only vegetative power, as the plants. There are others in which with the vegetative there exists also the sensitive, but not the locomotive powers; such are immovable animals, as shellfish. There are others which besides this have locomotive powers, as perfect animals, which require many things for their life, and consequently the movement to seek necessaries of life from a distance. And there are some living things which these have intellectual power—namely, men. But the appetitive power does not constitute a degree of living things; because wherever there is sense there is also appetite.

 

Whether the Active Intellect is Something in the Soul?

 

In order to make this question evident, we must observe that above the intellectual soul of man we must-needs suppose a superior intellect, from which the soul acquires the power of understanding. For what is such by participation, and what is mobile, and what is imperfect always requires the pre-existence of something essentially such, immovable and perfect. Now the human soul is called intellectual by reason of participation in intellectual power; a sign of which is that it is not wholly intellectual but only in part. Moreover it reaches to the understanding of TRUTH by arguing, with a certain amount of reasoning and movement. Again it has an imperfect understanding; both because it does not understand everything, and because, in those things which it does understand, it passes from potentiality to act. Therefore there must-needs be some higher intellect, by which the soul is helped to understand (God’s Word). http://www.godsplan.org.uk/dispensationalplan.htm.

Wherefore some held that this intellect, substantially separate, is the active intellect, which by lighting up the phantasms as it were, makes them to be actually intelligible. But, even supposing the existence of such a separate active intellect, it would still be necessary to assign to the human soul some power participating in that superior intellect, by which power the human soul makes things actually intelligible. Just as in other perfect natural things, besides the universal active causes, each one is endowed with its proper powers derived from those universal causes (Of, relating to, or affecting the entire universe: the universal laws of physics) http://www.godsplan.org.uk/jehovah%27sword.htm

The Soul

 
 http://www.godsplan.org.uk/physicsofimmortality.htm for the sun alone does not generate man; but in man is the power of begetting man; and in like manner with other perfect animals. Now among these lower things nothing is more perfect than the human soul. Wherefore we must say, that in the soul is some power derived from a higher intellect, whereby it is able to light up the phantasms. (something seen but having no physical reality, ideas, inspirations, &c.). And we know this by experience, since we perceive that we abstract universal forms from their particular conditions, which is to make them actually intelligible. Now no action belongs to anything except through some principle formally inherent therein; as we have said above of the passive intellect. Therefore the power which is the principle of this action must be something in the soul http://www.godsplan.org.uk/isgodthetruth%20.htm.

 

If the Shepherds themselves are lost, how can we as sheep, expect them to teach us the TRUTH?

Only by learning yourself can you be led into the TRUTH.