Justification Completed by ~ reconciliation:

Romans 5:1 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:


Once more Paul strikes the keynote which we have heard in (Rom 1:17. 3:21); but now he feels at liberty to develop his theme.


Romans 1:17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith


Romans 3:21 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;


Being justified by faith, as he has shown so fully and so persuasively in the preceding chapters, let us not omit the next step; let us have peace with God. Let the effect of Christ’s sacrificial death have full scope, not stopping at justification or remission of sins, but including in our experience peace with God, forgiveness in the deep sense of restoration to fellowship, reconciliation. For Christ, and our faith in Him, are to bring us on to a new footing with God, a new platform or plane. We are to be lifted above the old level of legal compact and of servile obedience to the written code that killeth and are to rejoice in the hope of that same glory of God, the lack of which we have so deeply felt.


Romans 3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;


Vv 3—5 are parenthetical. Vv 3—5 (A parenthetical statement is one that explains or qualifies something.) The full glory of God is not yet ours, for we are not yet fully conformed to the image of His Son. On the other hand, tribulation is still the portion of the Christian no less than of other men; but in that also we can proudly rejoice.


John 16:33 These things I have spoken unto you, that in Me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.


Revelation 1:9 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.


For we have in the love of God the secret of an alchemy by which tribulation is transmitted into a sure and certain hope. The steps of that process are plain to see. Tribulation (distress or suffering resulting from oppression or persecution ;) produces endurance, endurance testedness, the consciousness of having been tried and having stood the test; and tested produces hope. By hope Paul again means something other than an inclination to expect the best; it approaches very nearly to “conviction,” of “faith” in the sense of the writer to the Hebrews. The fact that this hope shall not be disappointed is guaranteed by the love of God by which, through the action of the Spirit, our hearts have been flooded. Everything that happens to the Christian happens within the atmosphere of the Divine love, or upon the plane of the Divine grace; so that even tribulation becomes something in which we can proudly rejoice.


In Romans 5: 6 For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.


 Paul picks up the thread from Romans 5: 2 By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.


In words which speak for themselves reminds his readers of the central fact of the gospel. As Christ came, “not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance,” so He died for men who made no claim to righteousness. It was just conceivable that one man might be willing to die for the sake of another who was good and lovable. The wonder of Divine love was that Christ died for the ungodly and the unlovable. And precisely because it was so incredible for  one who knew himself to be ungodly that he should be the object of love to a Holy God, the purpose of Christ’s death was to confirm beyond all doubt this unbelievable fact, and not only to confirm it, but to press it home upon his heart.


Romans 5:8 But God commendeth His love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.


Justification Romans 5:9 and reconciliation Romans 5:11


Romans 5:9 Much more then, being now justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.


Romans 5:10--11

10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of His Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.

11 And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.


Justification and reconciliation are not for Paul interchangeable terms, neither do they describe the same factors in Christian experience. They are connected with; and describe different ways, of regarding man’s wrong relation to God./

“Justification” looks at the wrong relation from a forensic (belonging to) point of view. Sin is transgression, violation of Law.

·        The sinner is under condemnation.

·        He can be justified or receive “remission of sins” by the working of the sovereign will if God.

·        He is then acquitted, pronounced not guilty or righteous.

·        And it is conceivable that the process should stop there with the removal of guilt and condemnation.

But Paul also more deeply into the true meaning of sin. He saw it not merely as a transgression, which could be overlooked or pardoned, but as something which vitally something which vitally affected the personal relation between God’s children and himself, which “estranged them from the life of God” Eph 4:18, made them suspicious of His goodness, unbelieving of His promises, hostile to His purposes and even to himself.


Ephesians 4:18 Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:


This was a situation which could not be dealt with even by a sovereign act of God, or by any arrangement to the sinner himself. It called for the operation of some mighty force, whereby the sinner could be induced to throw

away his hostility, his suspicion, his shrinking from God, whereby he could not only be justified, but reconciled. 

Paul saw this force also in the Crucifixion. In two successive verses (8—9) above, he touches on these two aspects of Christ’s work in relation to sin, and emphatically connects that work in both its aspects with the death of Christ. We have been justified by His blood, or (as the preposition ought probably to be given the local sense) “in the conditions created by His death.” The phrase is a highly condensed summary of what we have already expounded.


Romans 3:25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in His blood, to declare His righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;


God had set forth Christ as a victim unto blood, and the result unto which that led was that God now justified those who founded upon faith in Christ. Much more, the, argues Paul, we shall be saved from the Wrath through Him. The insertion by the R.V. of the words of God, which are not in the text, obscures Paul’s point, and also not unnaturally raises the question whether that is not already included in the justification. The phrase is eschatological (of or relating to the end of the world) in its outlook, and expresses the assurance that those who are justified will through Christ be saved in the Day of Judgement. But, more than that, those whom, equally through His death, also reconciled, will be saved by His life, His life as a risen and glorified Saviour. Once more Paul passes from the forensic to the ethical and the personal. Those who have been reconciled have “Christ in them the hope of glory.” He is their life.


Colossians 1:27 To whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory:


Galatians 2:20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave Himself for me.


Colossians 3:4 When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with Him in glory.


By the power of the living Christ who dwells in them they shall be saved as they progressively approximate to the knowing and of the doing to the will of God.


Philippians 2:13 For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure.


John 15:5 I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without Me ye can do nothing.


Nay, more; not only have we this double confidence as those who have been justified and reconciled, but we pride ourselves in God.


Romans 5:11 And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.


Through Jesus Christ, through whom we have received and accepted the reconciliation. The Christian “rejoices or prides himself in God” even as the Jew does but with new and far better reason.


Romans 2:17 Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God,


Effect of Christ’s Obedience Illustrated by the Effect of Adam’s Disobedience.

Once more the clue to a somewhat complicated argument is found in a clear summary of it toward the end of the paragraph. There v 18 may be rendered, “So then, as one man’s transgression resulted in condemnation passed upon all men, so did the righteous act of one result  for all men in which a righteousness leads to life.”


Romans 5:18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.


The first of these statements Paul takes for granted; it embodies that, which had come to prevail among the Jews, as to the consequences entailed upon all his descendants by the disobedience of Adam. http://godsplan.org.uk/serpentofgenesis3.htm  Upon that accepted proposition Paul bases his inference as to the participation by all who are by faith united to Christ in in the consequences of His obedience. But the working out of the argument suffers in clearness,

1.      From the necessity he feels to distinguish between those who lived before, and those who lived after the giving of the Law as to the nature of their responsibility;

2.      By his desire to show that the effect of Christ’s obedience is not only parallel to that of Adam’s disobedience but vastly greater. (Vv 15—17).

3.      By failing to complete the opening sentence.



Hebrews 6: 15—17

15 And so, after He had patiently endured, He obtained the promise.

16 For men verily swear by the greater: and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife.

17 Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of His counsel, confirmed it by an oath:


In verse 12 Paul is thinking of sin as an external force, quasi-personal and active prior to any lodgement it acquires in human nature. The disobedience of Adam has opened the door for the entrance of this hostile force into humanity. Through the door thus opened has passed Death, which is also conceived of an external force, one of the spirit forces of evil.


1 Corinthians 15:56 The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law.


where death is represented as using sin as a sting wherewith to stab men. And so death passed upon all men, all men became subject to it. It is true, as is commonly said, that Paul has not before his mind the distinction we commonly share between physical death and spiritual death. He is thinking of death in all its forms and manifestations. But the emphasis here at least is upon death as the cutting off of human life from God. This is revealed when we come to verses 17 and 21, and find that the condition the condition introduced by Christ which counteracts this death, and operates on the same principle, is a condition of life, meaning not physical life, but life that is “eternal  It is further borne out by the passage in Rom 7:7—11, where the parallelism of thought, though not exact, is sufficiently clear.


Romans 7:7—11

07 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, ‘Thou shalt not covet’.

08 But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead.

09 For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.

10 And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death.

11 For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.


concupiscence = lust. v 7


“Sin sprang to life, and I died,” obviously not in the sense of natural death. Compare also, “Ye who were dead in your trespasses and sins”


Ephesians 2:1 And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;


Death in every sense had imposed itself upon all men, for that all sinned (v 12). This is the right translation, the rendering in the Latin Vulgate (“In whom, Scil. In Adam all sinned”) being one which has had unfortunate results in Christian theology. But the phrase is not adducing (cite as pertinent or conclusive) the reason why death passed upon all men; that has already been give earlier in the verse. “Inasmuch as all sinned” calls attention to the fact as proof of the statement that moral death had seized mankind. Sin was thus in the world, lodged in human nature prior to the giving of the Law; but it was not reckoned ; men were held responsible for conforming to such moral principles as  were within their knowledge but they were not condemned as violators of a written code.


Romans 2:12 For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law;


Nevertheless, they were under the rule of death, even though they had not, like Adam, broken an express command. Their universal experience of being under the dominion of death was due to their connections with Adam; and in that he was a type of Christ who was to come. For the bond with Him which it was for faith to establish would secure for them, apart from any personal deserts, the reversal of the condition of death and the righteousness which leads to life.

But the case of Adam and the consequences entailed upon his descendants by his act of disobedience, though a good illustration, is after all, an inadequate one.


Romans 5:15--21 

15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one [Adam’s disobedience] many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.

17 For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)

18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.

19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

20 Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:

21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.


The gift which comes to men through Christ’s supreme act of obedience is of transcendent scope. It is claimed, in the ABC, by Professor C Anderson Scott that (Moffatt’s translation should be consulted here). http://www.jesus-is-savior.com/Bible/moffatt.htm 


Those who the free and abounding gift of righteousness should themselves reign in life. Having summed up the argument of the paragraph in v 18 above, Paul repeats it in a slightly different form, one which further illuminates his point of view. The transgression of Adam is now clearly defined as his disobedience, and the righteous act of Christ as his obedience; and the results in both cases are that the rest of men receive a certain status,

1.      In the one case the status of sinners.

2.      In the other the status of righteous.

The imagery is belonging to Genesis http://godsplan.org.uk/spiritualycontrolled.htm,  if we may not say that the ideas of personal moral guilt and of personal moral righteousness are absent, they are at least far in the background. Paul is thinking of the relation of men to God in terms of a status into which they had been introduced, in the one case by the transgression of Adam, in the other by Christ’s great act of obedience, but in both cases the status is something to be voluntarily accepted. Once more  (v 20) he touches on the function of the Law;


Romans 5:20 Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:


Romans 3:20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.


Romans 4:15 Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.


Romans 7:8, 10, 12.

08 But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead.

10 And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death.

12 Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.


Galatians 3:19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.


Matthew 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.


It is to bring transgressions to light in all their copiousness, to indicate that men not only have the status of sinners but the habit of sinning, in order that for the reign of sin in death might be substituted the rule of grace which leads to eternal life through Jesus Christ.


Romans 5:21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.


Rom Chapter 6 1—14 Sin Incompatible with the New Life.

A new question, though one of the same class as Rom 3:5a But if our unrighteousness commend the righteousness of God, what shall we say? (b)Is God unrighteous who taketh vengeance? (I speak as a man)


If the result of sin is to give opportunity for the manifestation of God’s abundant grace, does it not follow that we should continue in the practice of sin? It is a captious (calculated to confuse, entrap) question, yet Paul deals with it seriously, for it gives him the opportunity of showing the indissoluble connection between the experience of the believer in Christ and a life of purity and high moral endeavour. There is, indeed, he suggests, something irrational in the idea that Christians should live under the power of sin, because they have already died to sin.


Romans 6:2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein? The significance from this important phrase is to be learned from;


Romans 6: 10 For in that He died, He died unto sin once: but in that He liveth, He liveth unto God. Christ when He died; died to sin.


The thought springs out of Paul’s conviction as to the reality and completeness of the resurrection. Christ came “in the flesh,” “born of a woman,” truly and completely man. The flesh in which He came was sin’s flesh.


Romans 6:6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.


Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:


That is to say, it was the human constitution of man, as that had come to be, since Adam’s transgression, an appanage (a grant) of sin. This “flesh” or physical constitution of man, like everything else God made, had originally been “good.” But historically it had come to belong to sin..


Romans 5:12 Wherefore, [an answer] as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: http://www.godsplan.org.uk/beforegenesis.htm


Romans 7:14 For we know that the law is spiritual: but I [Paul, and the rest of us] am carnal, sold under sin.


Christ, being truly in the flesh as it had then come to be, felt the full force of sin’s power, the full brunt of its attack. His experience of sin was in all respects, identical with that of man, save in one respect, namely, that He never consented to it..


2 Corinthians 5:21 For He [God} hath made Him [Christ] to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him.

Among the things which happened at His death of the crucifixion was this, that He stripped the flesh from off Himself, and in so doing escaped from the power of sin; in fact, “died to it”.


Colossians 2:15 And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.


The faith by which men were united to Christ was of such a character that they too died to sin, died from under its authority, were henceforth free from its dominion. But Christ not only died but rose again, arose to live unto God.


Romans 6:10 For in that he died, he died unto sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God.


And, once more, faith-union with Him had a similar result for those who believed. They were made alive “together with Christ”


Colossians 2:13 And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses;


They had passed through an experience which made it simply irrational to continue under the power of sin. Now, of this experience Pal saw a vivid picture in Baptism Those who had gone beneath the waters of some pool had in their memories an acted picture of having died, even been buried with Christ; and the emergence from the water which followed was an unforgettable witness to the fact that they had become partakers of the higher life; they were alive unto God. For v5 introduces further confirmation of what has gone before. What follows is an attempt to bring out the same double TRUTH by means of another metaphor, one which we find more fully developed in;


John 15:1—27

01 I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman.

02 Every branch in Me that beareth not fruit He taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, He purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.

03 Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you.

04 Abide inMe, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in Me.

05 I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without Me ye can do nothing.

06 If a man abide not in Me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.

07 If ye abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.

08 Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be My disciples.

09 As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love.

10 If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and abide in His love.

11 These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.

12 This is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you.

13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

14 Ye are My friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you.

15 Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of My Father I have made known unto you.

16 Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in My name, He may give it you.

17 These things I command you, that ye love one another.

18 If the world hate you, ye know that it hated Me before it hated you.

19 If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.

20 Remember the word that I said unto you; The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept My saying, they will keep yours also.

21 But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me.

22 If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloak for their sin.

23 He that hateth Me hateth My Father also.

24 If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both Me and my Father.

25 But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated Me without a cause.

26 But when the Comforter is come, [holy spirit] whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of TRUTH, which proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me: THE HOLY SPIRIT, generally with the Article, denoting the Giver, as distinct from His gifts.  See No. 14, p. 147.  After a preposition the Article is sometimes to be understood, as being latent.

27 And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me from the beginning.


It is a vital union in which Christians are united to Christ, a union like that of the branches with the vine; and if they have shared in His experience of dying to sin they must share in His experience of new life. “If we have grown into Him by a death like His, we shall grow into Him by a resurrection like His.” Paul goes on to add; our old man was crucified with Him.                                                                                                                                           


Romans 6:6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.


Galatians 2:20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave Himself for me.


Ephesians 4:22 That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;


See No. 14, p. 147 Pneuma Hagion = holy spirit, and is co printed in The Companion Bible. This usage (without Articles0 occurs 52 time in the N.T., and is always wrongly rendered “the Holy Spirit” (with the definite Article, and capital letters). Consequently there is no stronger rendering [translation] available when there are two Articles present in the Greek (to pneuma to hagion), which means “the Spirit the Holy [Spirit]”. Hence, the English reader can never tell which of the two very different Greek expressions he is reading.

Pneuma Hagion (without Articles0 is never used of the Giver (the Holy Spirit), but only, and always of His gift.  What this gift is may be seen by comparing;


Acts 1:4—5

4 And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith He, ye have heard of Me.

5 For John [The Baptist] truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence


With Luke 24:49 And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.


where “the promise of the Father” is called (in the former passage) pneuma hagion, and in the latter is called “power from on high” This “power from on high” includes whatever gifts The Holy Spirit may bestow “according to His own will”. What particular gift is meant is sometimes stated e.g. faith, power, &c This will be found to be the case in every one of the 52 occurrences. See Acts 2:4 (the first occurrence subsequent to Acts 1:4—5 above), where we read “they were all filled with pneuma hagion, and;

·        Began to speak with other tongues, as THE Spirit gave”. Here the Giver and His gift are strictly distinguished. http://levendwater.org/companion/append101.html http://www.godsplan.org.uk/spiritualmessage.htm