Man’s Various Duties and States in General

Thomas Aquinas

Edited by J E Bradburn


So; what does the Bible reveal about today’s man? Let us take a closer look at an impartial selection from the Dispensational Plan of E.W. Bullinger’s Companion Bible KJV, and The Summa Theologica Thomas Aquinas to discover what TRUTHS both reveal to us.


To Roman Catholics, It is thus laid down in the Decretals (II, qu. vi, Si Quando):


Whenever anyone intervene in a cause where life or state is at stake he must do so, not by a proxy, but in his own person; and state here has reference to freedom or servitude. Therefore it would seem that nothing differentiates a man’s state, except that which refers to freedom or servitude (slavery or anything resembling it).


BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE, Vita XVI:3,4 and XVII (p.137), and John 8:44 KJV.  John 8:44 (KJV) Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.


XII 1) And with a heavy sigh, the devil spake: “O Adam! All my hostility, envy, and sorrow is for thee, since it is for thee that I have been expelled from my glory, which I possessed in the heavens in the midst of the angels and for thee I was cast out in the earth.” 2) Adam answered, “What dost thou tell me? What have I done to thee or what is my fault against thee? 3) Seeing that thou hast received no harm or injury from us, why dost thou pursue us?”

XIII 1) The devil replied, “Adam, what dost thou tell me? It is for thy sake that I have been hurled from that place. 2) When thou wast formed (Gen 2:7 KJV), I was hurled out of the presence of God and banished from the company of the angels. When God blew into thee the breath of life and thy face and likeness was made in the image of God Michael also brought thee and made (us) worship thee in the sight of God; and God the Lord spake: ‘Here is Adam. I have made thee in our image and likeness.’

XIV 1) And Michael went out and called all the angels saying: ‘Worship the image of God as the Lord God hath commanded.’ 2) And Michael himself worshipped first; then he called me and said: ‘Worship the image of God the Lord.’ 3) And I answered, ‘I have no (need) to worship Adam.’ And since Michael kept urging me to worship, I said to him, ‘Why dost thou urge me? I will not worship an inferior and younger being (than I). I am his senior in the creation, before he was made was I already made. It is his duty to worship me.

XV 1) When the angels, who were under me, heard this, they refused to worship him. 2) And Michael saith, ‘Worship the image of God, but if thou wilt not worship him, the Lord God will be wrath with thee.’ 3) And I said, ‘If He be wrath with me, I will set my seat above the stars of heaven and will be like the Highest.’

XVI 1) And God the LORD was wrath with me and banished me and my angels from our glory; and on thy account were we expelled from our abodes into this world and hurled on the earth. 2) And straightaway we were overcome with grief, since we had been spoiled of so great glory. 3) And we were grieved when we saw thee in such joy and luxury. 4) And with guile I cheated thy wife and caused thee to be expelled through her (doing) from thy joy and luxury, as I have been driven out of my glory.” (2 Thessalonians 1:9).

XVII 1) When Adam heard the devil say this, he cried out and wept and spake: “O Lord my God, my life is in thy hands. Banish this Adversary far from me, who seeketh to destroy my soul, and give me his glory which he himself hath lost.” 2) And at that moment, the devil vanished before him. 3) But Adam endured in his penance, standing for forty days (on end) in the water of Jordan.


Properly speaking denotes a kind of position, whereby a thing is disposed with certain immobility in a manner according with its nature. (Standing one’s ground on a point in view). For it is natural to man that his head should be directed upwards, his feet set firmly on the ground, and his other intermediate members disposed in becoming order; and this is not the case if he lie down, sit, or recline, but only when he stands upright: nor again is he said to stand, if he move, but only when he is still. Hence it is again that that even in human acts, a matter is said to have stability (statum) in reference to its own disposition in the point of a certain immobility or restfulness. Consequently matters which easily change and are extrinsic (not part of something) to them do not constitute a state among men, for instance that a man be rich or poor, of high or low rank, and so forth. Wherefore in the civil law it is said that if a man be removed from the senate, he is deprived of his dignity rather than of his state. But that alone seemingly pertains to a man’s state, which regards an obligation binding his person, in so far, to wit, as a man is his own master or subject to another (for a man, not having the power of his own life ... and he that cannot take away his own life, cannot give another power), not indeed from any slight or unstable cause, but from one that is firmly established; and this is something pertaining to the nature of freedom of servitude. We serve God because we want too, as the children of God he is our Father; and as a Father, loves us and cares for us. Not as the enemy in the Epic Poem Paradise Lost by John Milton: Satan is the first major character introduced in the poem. Formerly called Lucifer, he was the most beautiful of all angels in Heaven, and is a tragic figure who describes himself with the now-famous quote "Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven." He is introduced to Hell after he leads a failed rebellion to wrest control of Heaven from God. Satan's desire to rebel against his creator stems from his unwillingness to be subjugated (to bring under control) by God and his Son, claiming that angels are "self-begot, self-raised," and thereby denying God's authority over them as their creator.


[13] Rev 13: (Denotes rebellion, apostasy, defection, disintegration, and revolution,) verse 18. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. It is very important to know and understand that the Antichrist 666 will arrive on earth prior to Christ our Lord.


·         Revelation 6:12:   -   Sixth Seal. 6 (Denotes the human number) 12 Denotes Government perfection, which have to do with government in the heavens and the earth.

·         Revelation 9:13   -   Sixth Trumpet. 6    9 - (Denotes Finality of Judgment). 13 Denotes rebellion, apostasy, defection, disintegration, revolution.

·         Revelation 16:12   -   Sixth Vial. 6 (10 + 6 =16) - (10 Denotes ordinal perfection. 6. Denotes the human number).  12. Denotes Government perfection, which has to do with government in the heavens and the earth. (Goliath, Nebuchadnezzar, and Antichrist) are all emphatically marked by this number. Old Testament events serving as "ensamples" for the latter day events, how does this historical blueprint fit for our future? Instead of flesh pagan kings coming upon Jerusalem to siege and physically destroy, the latter day king of Babylon will be Satan and his angels as thorns and briers treading upon Jerusalem to do a spiritual destruction. According to Revelation 12:6 (note the numbers) forward, Satan and his angels will be booted out of Heaven down to this earth for the future tribulation; and that latter day working by the king of Babylon will be one of great deception. That is the type of devastation upon Jerusalem for the latter days.


Therefore state properly regards freedom or servitude whether in spiritual or in civil matters (Here is the choice; for you to make before time shortly runs out).                                                                                                                                  


Duties of Man (Christian)

The difference of states and duties in the Church regards three things,


1.      In the first place it regards the perfection of the Church For even as in the order of natural things, perfection which in God is simple and uniform, is not to be found in the created universe except in a multiform and manifold manner, so too, the fullness of grace, which is centered in Christ as head, flows forth to His members in various ways, for the perfecting of the body of the Church.  Ephesians 4:11—12 KJV 11 And He gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; 12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:

2.      Secondly, it regards the needs of those actions which are necessary to the Church. For a diversity of actions requires a diversity of men appointed to them, in order all things may be accomplished without delay or confusion; and this is indicated by the Apostle: Romans 12 4—5 KJV 4 For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office: 5 So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.

3.      Thirdly, this belongs to the dignity and beauty of the Church, which consist in a certain order; wherefore it is written: 3 Kings 10: 4—5 KJV 4 And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom, and the house that he had built, 5 And the meat of his table, and the sitting of his servants, and the attendance of his ministers, and their apparel, and his cupbearers, and his ascent by which he went up unto the house of the Lord; there was no more spirit in her. Hence the Apostle says 2 Timothy 2:20 KJV But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour.


Just as nature does not employ many means where one suffices, so neither does it confine itself to one were many are required.


1 Corinthians 12:17 (KJV) If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling?


Hence there was need in the Church, which is Christ’s body, for the Christian believers to be differentiated by various duties, states, and grades,


Ephesians 2:2 (KJV) Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit (Satan) that now [today] worketh in the children of disobedience .


Of the fitness of the incarnation (embodied in flesh or taking on flesh).


It would seem most fitting that by visible things the invisible things of God should be made known; for to this end was the whole world made.


Romans 1:20 KJV) For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:  ‘and by the mystery of the incarnation are made known at once the goodness, the wisdom, the justice, and the power or might of God—His goodness, for He did not despise the weakness of His own handiwork; His justice, since on man’s defeat, He cured the tyrant to be overcome by none other than man, and yet He did not snatch men forcibly from death; (we have a choice to make) His wisdom, for He found a suitable discharge for a most heavy debt; His power, or infinite might, for there is nothing greater than for God to become incarnate’. 

The Apostle Paul tells us in his first letter to the church in Corinth, “The first man Adam became a living being; the last Adam, a life-giving spirit. The spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and after that the spiritual. The first man was of the dust of the earth, the second man from heaven. As was the earthly man, so are those who are of the earth; and as is the man from heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. And just as we have borne the likeness of the earthly man, so shall we bear the likeness of the man from heaven” (1 Corinthians 15:45-49).


1 Corinthians 15:45-49 (KJV)

45 And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam (Christ) was made a quickening spirit.

46 Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward that which is spiritual.

47 The first man is of the earth, earthy; the second man is the Lord from heaven.

48 As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy (on this fallen earth): and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. (Spiritual)

49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy, (after the fall) we shall also bear the image of the heavenly (at the second advent).


Every mode of being wherein any creature whatsoever differs from the Creator has been established by God’s wisdom, and is ordained to God’s goodness. For God, who is uncreated, immutable, ("unable to change”) and incorporeal, produced mutable and corporeal creatures for His own goodness (after the fall). And so also the evil of punishment was established by God’s justice for God’s glory. But evil of fault is committed by withdrawing from the art of the Divine wisdom and from the order of the Divine goodness. And therefore it could be fitting to God to assume (give us) a nature created, mutable (changing), corporeal (physical body), and subject to penalty,  but it did not become Him to assume the evil of fault


THE SECOND BOOK OF ENOCH 5: 31 "Adam -- Mother; earthly and life. I created a garden in Edem, in the east, so that he might keep the agreement and preserve the commandment. I created for him an open heaven, so that he might look upon the angels, singing in triumphal song. The light, which is never darkened, was perpetually in paradise.

The devil understood how I wished to create another world, so that everything could be subjected to Adam on the earth, to rule and reign over it. The devil is of the lowest places.

Lucifer has become a demon, because he fled from heaven. In this way, he became different from the angels. His nature did not change, but his thought did, since his consciousness of righteous and sinful things changed.

Lucifer became aware of his condemnation and of the sin he sinned previously. This is why he thought up the scheme against Adam. In such a form, he entered paradise and corrupted Eve. But Adam, he did not contact.

On account of her ignorance, I cursed the ground and the serpent. I DID NOT CURSE MANKIND, nor any other creature, but only mankind's evil fruit-bearing. This is why the fruit of doing good is sweat and exertion.”                                 


Whether it Was Necessary for the Restoration of the Human Race,

 That the Word of God Should Become Incarnate?


What frees the human race from perdition (a state of final spiritual ruin).is necessary for the salvation of man But the mystery of the Incarnation is such; according to John:


John 3:16 KJV For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.


Therefore it was necessary for man’s salvation that God should become incarnate. A thing is said to be necessary for a certain end in two ways:


1.      When the end cannot be without it; as food is necessary for the preservation of human life.

2.      Secondly, when the end is attained better and more conveniently, as a form of transport is necessary for a journey.


In the first way it was not necessary that God should become incarnate for the restoration of human nature. For God of His omnipotent power could have restored human nature in many other ways. But in the second way it was necessary that God should become incarnate for the restoration of human nature. ‘We shall also show that other ways were not wanting to God, to Whose power all things are equally subject; but that there was not a more fitting way of healing our misery.’


Matthew 13:24—30 KJV

24 Another parable put He forth unto them, saying, ‘The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field:’

25 ‘But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.’

26 ‘But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also.’

27 ‘So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, “Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares?”’

28 He said unto them, “An enemy hath done this.” The servants said unto him, “Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up?’”

29 But he said, “Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them.”

30 ‘Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.’


Now this may be viewed with respect to our furtherance in good:


1.      First, with regard to faith, which is made more certain by believing God Himself Who speaks; ‘In order that man might journey more trustfully toward the TRUTH, the Truth itself, the Son of God, having assumed human nature, established and founded faith.

2.      Secondly, with regard to hope, which is thereby greatly strengthened; Hence: Nothing was so necessary for raising our hope as to show us how deeply God loved us. And what could afford us a stronger proof of this than that the Son should become a partner with us of human nature? Ezekiel 37:27 KJV My tabernacle also shall be with them: yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people.  

3.      Thirdly, with regard to charity, which is greatly enkindled by this: ‘What greater cause is there of the Lord’s coming than to show God’s love for us ’and adds, ‘If we have been slow to love, at least let us hasten to love in return.’

4.      Fourthly, with regard to well-doing, in which He set us an example; ‘man who might be seen was not to be followed; but God was to be followed, Who could not be seen.’ nd therefore God was made man, that He Who might be seen by man, and Whom man might follow, might be shown to man.’

5.      Fifthly, with regard to the full participation of the Divinity, which is the true bliss of man and end of human life; and this is bestowed upon us by Christ’s humanity; ‘God was made man that man might be made God.’


So also was this useful for our withdrawal from evil.


1.      Firstly, because man is taught by it not to prefer the devil to himself, nor to honour him who is the author of sin; ‘Since human nature is so united to God as to become one person, let not these proud spirits dare to prefer themselves to man, because they have no bodies.’

2.      Secondly, because we are thereby taught how great is man’s dignity, lest we should sully it with sin; God has proved to us how high a place human nature holds amongst creatures, inasmuch as He appeared to man as a true man.’ and: Learn O Christian, thy worth; and being made a partner of the Divine nature, refuse to return to evil deeds to your former worthlessness.’

3.      Thirdly, because, in order to do away with man’s presumption, the grace of God is commended in Jesus Christ, though no merits of ours went before,

4.      Fourthly, because man’s pride, which is the greatest stumbling block to our clinging to God, can be convinced and cured by humility so great,

5.      Fifthly, In order to free man from the thraldom of sin, which, ought to be done in such a way that the devil should be overcome by the Justice of the man  Jesus Christ, and this was done by Christ satisfying for us. Now a mere man could not have satisfied for the whole human race, and God was not bound to satisfy; hence it behooved Jesus Christ to be both God and man. Hence: Weakness is assumed by strength, lowliness by majesty, mortality by eternity, in order that one and the same Mediator of God and men might die in one and arise in the other—for this was our fitting remedy. Unless He was God, He would not have brought a remedy; and unless He was man, He would not have set an example. And there are very many other advantages which accrued, above man’s apprehension (foreboding).    


01. Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit

02. Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast

03. Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,

04. With loss of Eden, till one greater Man

05. Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,

06. Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top

07. Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire

08. That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,

09. In the Beginning how the Heavens and Earth

10. Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill

11. Delight thee more, and Siloa's Brook that flowed

12. Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence

13. Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song,

14. That with no middle flight intends to soar

15. Above the Aonian Mount, while it pursues

16. Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhyme.

17. And chiefly Thou O Spirit that dost prefer

18. Before all Temples the upright heart and pure,

19. Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first

20. Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread

21. Dove-like sat brooding on the vast Abyss 

22. And mad'st it pregnant: What in me is dark

23. Illumin, what is low raise and support;

24. That to the highth of this great Argument

25. I may assert Eternal Providence,

26. And justify the ways of God to men. 


Paradise Lost’ by John Milton 1667; is an epic poem telling of:

·         The world that then was

·         The World which is now

·         The World to Come  Paradise Regained.


Thus they the Son of God our Saviour meek

Sung Victor, and, from Heavenly Feast refresht

Brought on his way with joy; hee unobserv'd

Home to his Mother’s house private return'd.


Which is covered in my website1.  2.    3.   4.   5.


Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth.


The conjunction now connects what follows with the previous chapter. The creation of the new heaven and new earth is in response to the destruction of the previous heaven and earth which fled away and gave up the dead (Rev. 20:11).: “in the sense that what is old has become obsolete, and should be replaced by what is new. In such a case the new is, as a rule, superior in kind to the old.”


An earth which no longer smarts and smokes under the curse of sin,—an earth which needs no more to be torn with hooks and irons to make it yield its fruits,—an earth where thorns and thistles no longer infest the ground, nor serpents hiss among the flowers, nor savage beasts lay in ambush to devour,—an earth whose sod is never cut with graves, whose soil is never moistened with tears or saturated with human blood, whose fields are never blasted with unpropitious seasons, whose atmosphere never gives wings to the seeds of plague and death, whose ways are never lined with funeral processions, or blocked up with armed men on their way to war,—an earth whose hills ever flow with salvation, and whose valleys know only the sweetness of Jehovah’s smiles,—an earth from end to end, and from centre to utmost verge, clothed with the eternal blessedness of Paradise Restored! It was revealed to the OT prophets that the first heavens and earth would perish (Ps. 102:25-26; Isa. 51:6) and be replaced by a new heavens and earth:


Psalms. 102:25-26 KJV

25 Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the work of thy hands.

26 They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed:


Isaiah 51:6 KJV Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment, and they that dwell therein shall die in like manner: but My salvation shall be for ever, and My righteousness shall not be abolished.

350 years later I have almost completed and edited the same saga as John Milton; but in modern English: John E Bradburn 2017



Revelation 18:4 KJV And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, “Come out of her, My people,   that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.” 29th March 2017 Article 50 Issued from Westminster Parliament


Revelation 19:16 (KJV) And He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, King Of Kings, And Lord Of Lords.