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Its scope is further shown by its place in the Canon. The order of the separate books of the N.T. varies, but they are always formed in four groups that never vary chronologically.  2+7 = 9 x 3 = 27

2 = Difference (Wheat & Tares) Matthew 13


1.      The Four Gospels.  = Mathew – Mark - Luke - John.


2.      The Acts of the Apostles.


3.      The General Epistles (*10).


4.      The Pauline Epistles (*11).


5.      The Apocalypse.




The word "Testament", as a translation of the Greek word diathēkē (which means covenant), has been nothing less than a great calamity; for, by its use, truth has been effectually veiled all through the centuries; causing a wrong turning to be taken as to the purpose and character of this present Dispensation, by which the errors of tradition have usurped the place of important truth.


The word "Testament" as s name for a collection of books is unknown to Scripture.  It comes to us through the Latin Vulgate.  This was the rendering in the older Latin Versions before JEROME'S time; but, JEROME, while using foedus or pactum for the Heb. berith (beginning) in the O.T., unfortunately reverted to testamentum in his revision of his N.T. translation (A.D. 382-405).  Some of the Latin Fathers preferred instrumentum, much in the sense of our legal use of the word (1*). RUFINUS uses the expression novum et vetus instrumentum (*2), and AUGUSTINE uses both words instrumentum and testamentum (*3).


From the Vulgate, the word testament passed both into the English Bibles and the German.  The Greek word is diathēkē, which means "covenant", and the R.V. substitutes this meaning in every place except two (Heb. 9:16, 17, on which see the notes).  But even this word was never used as the title for the collection of books which make up the New Testament so called.


Hebrews 9:16 (KJV)

16 For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator.

17 For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth.

The two covenants referred to above show the necessity of a victim being slain for the validity of a covenant, and the ceremony of passing between the parts thereof. To the unconditional covenant with Abraham, Jehovah was the only party.


Genesis 15:17-18 (KJV)

17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.

18 In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:”

In the other, note verses 18—19 the passage here has nothing to do with a “will” or “will making”.

When these books were placed beside the books of the Hebrew Canon it became desirable, if not necessary, to distinguish them; and, as the then two Dispensations were already spoken of in Scripture as "old" and "new" ( 2 Cor. 3:6.  Heb. 8:6-13), so the books, which were connected with them, came to be called by the same names also. In (Exodus. 24:7 and 2 Kings 23:2, 21), we read of "the book of the covenant" (*4), and this distinction of the two covenants was already confirmed by 2 Cor. 3:16, 14, where the Apostle speaks of "the reading of the old covenant".


2 Corinthians 3:6 (KJV) Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.


Hebrew 8:6-13 (KJV)

06 But now hath He obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also He is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.

07 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.

08 For finding fault with them, He saith, “Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:”

09Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in My covenant, and I regarded them not,” saith the Lord.

10For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to Me a people:”

11 And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, “Know the Lord”: for all shall know Me, from the least to the greatest.

12 “For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more.”

13 In that He saith, “A new covenant, He hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.”


Exodus 24:7 (KJV) And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient.


Kings 23:2 (KJV)

2 And the king went up into the house of the Lord, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great: and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the Lord.

21 And the king commanded all the people, saying, Keep the passover unto the Lord your God, as it is written in the book of this covenant.


The term "New Covenant" is indeed a Scriptural expression, but it is not used of a collection of books.  It is used of the great prophecy and promise of Jer. 31:31-32:40 and Ezek. 37:26 (which is referred to in Heb. 8:8-12; 9:15-21; 10:15-18). The time for the making of this "New Covenant with the House of Israel and the House of Judah was drawing near.  The last prophet, MALACHI, had spoken of the coming of the "Angel of the Covenant", and of the "Messenger" who was to prepare His way before Him (Mal. 3:1).  He announces also the sending of ELIJAH the prophet to prepare the way of MESSIAH, and connects his name with that of MOSES (Mal. 4:4, 5).


Jeremiah 31:31-32:40 (KJV) & Jeremiah 40 (KJV)

31 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:

32Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them”, saith the Lord:


Ezekiel 37:26 (KJV) Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore.”


Hebrews 8:8-12 (KJV)

08 For finding fault with them, He saith, “Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:”

09 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord.”

10For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days,’ saith the Lord; ‘I will put My laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:’”

11 “And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord’: for all shall know Me, from the least to the greatest.’”

12 For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more.”


Hebrews 9:15-21 (KJV)

15 And for this cause He is the mediator of the New Testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.”

16 For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator.

17 For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth.

18 Whereupon neither the first testament was dedicated without blood.

19 For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book, and all the people,

20 Saying, This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined unto you.

21 Moreover he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the ministry.


Exodus 24:8 (KJV) And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words.”


Hebrews 10:15-18 (KJV)

15 Whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that He had said before,

16 “This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;”

17 And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.”

18 Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin.”


Malachi 3:1 (KJV) Behold, I will send My messenger, and He shall prepare the way before Me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to His temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, He shall come,” saith the Lord of hosts.


Malachi 4:4, 5 (KJV)

4 Remember ye the law of Moses My servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments?”

5 Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord:”  (Those who love God, be not afraid).


In due time JOHN THE BAPTIST was sent "in the spirit and power of ELIJAH" (Luke 1:17); and, had the people "received" him and obeyed his call to national repentance, he would have been counted for Elijah the prophet (Matt. 11:14; 17:11-13).  In like manner we may well conclude that the act and word of MESSIAH at the last supper was the making of the New Covenant itself; for the Lord said of the cup "this is [i.e. represents] My blood of the New Covenant" (Matt. 26:28.  Mark 14:24. Luke 22:20) thus fulfilling the prophecy of Jer. 31:31-34, as testified by Heb. 8:8-12; 9:15-21; 10:15-18.


Luke 1:17 (KJV) And he shall go before Him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.


The use of blood was confined to two purposes:--

1.      Atonement for sin (Lev. 17:11.  Heb. 9:22), (*5) and

2.      The making of a covenant (Ex. 24:6-8.  Heb. 9:16-22).

The use of the Greek word diatheke (covenant) in relation to a collection of books is appropriate only so far as these books are regarded as belonging to the "new covenant" foretold by Jeremiah, and as being "a new covenant" foretold by Jeremiah, and as being distinct from "the book of the (old) covenant", made in Ex. 24:6-8. The one great fact, which stands out in connection with the whole of the books which we call the Bible, is that they form the "Word of God", and are made up of the "words" of God (Jer 15:16  John 17:8, 14, 17.). This is the claim that is made by the book itself, and it is ours to receive it as such.  We, therefore, neither set out to discuss it, nor to prove it.  "God hath spoken"; and this, for our learning, and not for our reasoning; for our faith, and not for our questioning; still less for our criticism:  for the Word which He hath spoken is to be our judge in that day (John 12:48, Deut. 18:19, 20, and Heb. 4:12, where it is declared to be "able to judge" (A.V. "a discerner", Gr. kritikos; hence our "critic").  See further,

Thousands of infidels’ to-day believe and teach that the Council of Nice, held in A.D. 325, separated the "spurious" scriptures from the genuine ones, by some vote, or trick, when the sacred books were placed under a communion table, and, after prayer, the inspired books jumped upon the table, while the false books remained beneath.


This story originated with one "John Pappus", and infidels make a great mistake in identifying him with "Papias", or "Pappius", one of the earliest Fathers, called by Eusebius (iii. 36) a "Bishop" of Hierapolis, who wrote about A.D. 115.  The Encycl. Brit., 11th (Cambridge.) edition, vol. xx, p. 737, suggests about A.D. 60-135 as the period of his life. But John Pappus, who gave currency to the above story, was a German theologian born in 1549.  In 1601 he published the text of an Anonymous Greek MS.  This MS. cannot be older than A.D. 870, because it mentions events occurring in 869.  Now the Council of Nice was held 544 years before, and all its members had been dead and buried for some five centuries.  The Council of Nice was not called to decide the Canon.  Nothing relating to the Canon of Scripture can be found in any of its canons or acts.  And, even if it were otherwise, the votes of Councils could no more settle the Canon of the New Testament than a Town Council could settle the laws of a nation.


The great outstanding fact is that “JEHOVAH HATH SPOKEN", and that the Bible as a whole claims to give us His words; for speaking or writing cannot be without words.  Moreover, He tells us (Heb. 1:1) that He has spoken "AT SUNDRY TIMES AND IN DIVERS MANNERS", or, according to the Greek, in many parts (or portions) and by many ways (or methods). If we rightly divide these (according to 2Tim. 2:15) we have THE CONTENTS OF THE BIBLE AS A WHOLE,      


Hebrew 1:1(KJV) God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,


2 Timothy 2:15 (KJV) Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.


Which may be exhibited as follows (*6):--




·        A1 | DIVINE.  By the FATHER Himself.  The "times" being from Gen. 2:16 to Ex. 3:10.  The "manner" being to individuals from Adam onward.

·        B1 | HUMAN AGENCY.  "By the Prophets.”  The   "time" being from the call and mission of Moses   (Ex. 3:10) to that of John the Baptist, "greater than   them all" (Matt. 11:11).  The "manner" was by human   agency.

·        A2 | DIVINE.  "By HIS SON" (Heb. 1:1, 2.  Cp. Deut. 18:18, 19).  The "time" being from the beginning of His ministry (Matt. 4:12) to the end of it (Matt. 26:46).  See Ap. 119.

·        B2 | HUMAN AGENCY.  "By them that heard HIM",   ("the Son", Heb. 2:3, 4).  The "time" from Acts 1-28.   The "manner" was by apostolic testimony and writings,   contained in the General Epistles; and in the earlier   Pauline Epistles written during that "time".


·        A3 | DIVINE.  By "THE SPIRIT OF TRUTH" (as promised in John 16:12-15).  The "time" from the end of the Dispensation covered by the Acts of the Apostles, when He revealed "the things concerning Christ"; which could not be spoken by Him until the events had taken place, which was the foundation of the doctrines revealed in the later Pauline Epistles (Eph., Phil., Col.).  See esp. Eph. 2:4-7 (*7).  In these Epistles the Holy Spirit "guided" into all the truth, and thus fulfilled the promise of the Lord, in John 16:12-15.

Ephesians 2:4-7 (KJV)

4 But God, who is rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith He loved us,

5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved);

6 And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:

7 That in the ages to come He might shew the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.


John 16:12-15 (KJV)

12I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.”

13Howbeit when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth: for He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak: and He will shew you things to come.”

14He shall glorify Me: for He shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.”

15All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that He shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you.”

·        B3 | HUMAN AND ANGELIC AGENCY.  By "HIS   SERVANT JOHN", who bare record of the Word of   God, and of all things that he saw (Rev. 1:1, 2).  The   "time" was that covered by the giving the Book of the   Revelation in Patmos.  The "manner" was that it was   "sent and signified (showed by signs) by His angel (*8)."


Revelation 1:1—2  (KJV)

1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:

2 Who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw.


Since this written Word -- "the Scripture of Truth" -- was thus complete, God has not spoken directly or indirectly to mankind, either by Himself or by human agency.  "The Silence of God" during this Dispensation is a solemn reality. But He is going to speak again when this Dispensation comes to a close, and in Psalm 50 we are told what He is going to say when the silence is broken.


Psalm 50 (KJV)

01 The mighty God, even the Lord, hath spoken, “and called the earth from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof.”

02 “Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined.”

03 “Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour before Him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about Him.”

04 “He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the earth, that He may judge His people.”

05 “Gather My saints together unto Me; those that have made a covenant with Me by sacrifice.”

06 “And the heavens shall declare His righteousness: for God is judge Himself.” (Selah = think about it).

07 “Hear, O MY people, and I will speak; O Israel, and I will testify against thee: I am God, even thy God.

08 “I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices or thy burnt offerings, to have been continually before Me.”

09 “I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he goats out of thy folds.”

10 “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills.”

11 “I know all the fowls of the mountains: and the wild beasts of the field are Mine.”

12 “If I were hungry, I would not tell thee: for the world is Mine, and the fulness thereof.”

13 “Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?”

14 Offer unto God thanksgiving; and pay thy vows unto the most High:”

15 “And call upon Me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me”.

16 But unto the wicked God saith, “What hast thou to do to declare My statutes, or that thou shouldest take My covenant in thy mouth?”

17 “Seeing thou hatest instruction, and casteth My words behind thee.”

18 “When thou sawest a thief, then thou consentedst with him, and hast been partaker with adulterers.”

19 “Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy tongue frameth deceit.”

20 “Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slenderest thine own mother's son.”

21 “These things hast thou done, and I kept silence; thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as thyself: but I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thine eyes.”

22 Now consider this, ye that forget God, lest I tear you in pieces, and there be none to deliver.”

23 Whoso offereth praise glorifieth Me: and to him that ordereth his conversation aright will I shew the salvation of God.”


According to the division of the "times" exhibited above, it will be seen that they are six in number (the number of "man", Ap. 10). And it will be noted that the order of the Divine three is:

1.      FATHER (A1),

2.      SON (A2),

3.      HOLY SPIRIT (A3). When the "time" comes for Him to speak "once again", it will be apart from human agency.  This will make these "times and manners" seven in all (the number of spiritual perfection, Ap. 10 above).


Until, therefore, God shall speak once more, we have God's word --written.  To this we are now shut up; to this we do well "to take heed in our hearts"


2 Peter 1:19 (KJV) We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:


 We may not add to or take away from it: Revelation 22:18—19 (KJV)

18 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:

19 And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.


We may not receive any other writing purporting to have come from God.  There are many such in the present day; some of the authors being bold impostors and deceivers (*9), others being deceived by "automatic" writings through demons and evil spirits.


1 Timothy 4:1-3 (KJV)

1 Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;

2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;

3 Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.


To all such we are to say "Anathema" one that is cursed by ecclesiastical authority, and to treat them as accursed things.


Galatians 1:6-9 (KJV)

6 I marvel that ye are so soon removed from Him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:’

7Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.’

8 ‘But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.’

9 As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.’”




 Our English Bibles follow the order as given in the Latin Vulgate. This order, therefore, depends on the arbitrary judgment of one man, Jerome (A.D. 382-405).  All theories based on this order rest on human authority, and are thus without any true foundation. The original Greek manuscripts do not agree among themselves as to any particular order of the separate books, and a few of them have most remarkable differences. We are, however, on safe ground in stating that the books are generally divided into



For the most part these groups are in the following order :--

1.The Four Gospels.

2.The Acts of the Apostles.

3.The General Epistles (*10).

4.The Pauline Epistles (*11).

5.The Apocalypse.


Even the order of these five groups varies in very few cases (*12).  But these are so exceptional as not to affect the general order as given above; indeed, they help to confirm it. While the order of these five groups may be regarded as fairly established, yet, within each, the order of the separate books is by no means uniform, except in the fourth, which never varies (*12).  (See notes on the chronological and canonical orders of the Pauline Epistles, preliminary to the Structure of ROMANS, as a whole.)

(1)    (2)




Even in the first group, while the Four Gospels are almost always the same as we have them in the A.V. and R.V., yet in the Codex Bezae (Cent. 6) John follows Matthew; and in another, precedes it. When we divide the Pauline Epistles (Group 4 above), and re-combine them in their chronological and historical order, we find that they re-arrange themselves so as to be distributed between the fourth and sixth of the six groups shown above on p. 138. (*13)


The five groups of the New Testament order of books (shown above) thus fall into four chronological groups, being the same as the last four of the whole Bible, corresponding with A2, B2, A3, and B3 (p. 138) :--


C | THE FOUR GOSPELS : where the SON is the Divine Speaker, according to Heb. 1:2-.



Where human agency is employed in "them that heard" the Son (Heb. 2:3, 4), and Paul also, who both heard and saw Him.

Hebrew 2:3—4 (KJV)

3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;

4 God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?






Where "the Spirit of Truth" is the Divine Speaker, Teacher, and Guide, according to John 16:12-15.

John 16:12-15 (KJV)

12 I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.’

13 ‘Howbeit when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth: for He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak: and He will shew you things to come.’

14 ‘He shall glorify Me: for He shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.’

15 ‘All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that He shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you.’”




Where human agency is again employed in the person of John the Apostle and Evangelist, instructed by angelic agency.

From these four groups we may gather the one great scope of the New Testament books as a whole.

Corresponding with the above we may set them out as follows :--



C | THE KING and the KINGDOM.  Proclaimed to the Nation in the LAND.  The Kingdom rejected and the King crucified in JERUSALEM, the capital.


D | The re-offer of both (Acts 2:38; 3:19-26) to the Dispersion among the Gentiles; and their final rejection in ROME, the capital of the Dispersion .


Acts 28:16-28 (KJV)  

16 And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

17 And it came to pass, that after three days Paul called the chief of the Jews together: and when they were come together, he said unto them, Men and brethren, though I have committed nothing against the people, or customs of our fathers, yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans.

18 Who, when they had examined me, would have let me go, because there was no cause of death in me.

19 But when the Jews spake against it, I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.

20 For this cause therefore have I called for you, to see you, and to speak with you: because that for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain.

21 And they said unto him, “We neither received letters out of Judaea concerning thee, neither any of the brethren that came shewed or spake any harm of thee.”

22 But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest: for as concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is spoken against.

23 And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening.

24 And some believed the things which were spoken, and some believed not.

25 And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers,

26 Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive:

27 For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

28 Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles, and that they will hear it.


Gentile means a non-Jewish person (i.e. Christian )



C | The KING exalted, and made the Head over all things for the Church, which is His Body (Eph. 1:20-23.  Phil. 2:9-11.  Col. 1:13-19), in the Kingdom of His beloved Son (Col. 1:13).  The mystery revealed (Eph. 3:1-12. Col. 1:24-29).  The Kingdom on earth in abeyance. "Not yet".


Hebrews 2:8 (KJV) Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him.


D | The KINGDOM set up in judgment, power, and glory. The King enthroned.  Set forth as the great subject of the Apocalypse.


(*1)  Tertullian (A.D. 150-200), Adv. Marc. iv. 1.  In iv. 2, he uses it of a single gospel (Luke).


(*2)  Expos. Symbol. Apostol.


(*3)  De Civ. Dei, xx. 4.


(*4)  See also 1Maccabees 1:57 and Ecclus. 24:23. (Ecclesiastes)


(*5)  "Washing in blood" would defile, not cleanse. Sprinkling with blood, and washing in water, alone known to the O.T. (save in Ps. 58:10).  As to Rev. 1:5 and 7:14, see notes there.


(*6)  While the divisions shown in the Structure are true as a whole, it is not denied that there may be exceptions to the general rule; but these only go to establish the truth of the rule itself.


(*7)  The other later Epistles of Paul were written to individuals, and to a special class of Hebrew believers.


(*8)  Not by "the Spirit of Truth".  His mission, in A3, was to guide into the truth, while, in Acts of the Apostles (B2), it was to bear witness by miracles to the confirmation of them that heard the Son.  In the Apocalypse it was not Divine speaking by "the Spirit of Truth", but the showing by an Hierophant.


(*9)  Such as Swedenborg, Joanna Southcote, Joe Smith (of Mormonite fame), the author of "The Flying Roll", Mrs. Eddy, Dowic, and others.


(*10)  James usually coming first, following next after the Acts of the Apostles.


(*11)  Invariably in their present, canonical order, as given in the A.V.


(*12)  For example :  the fourth follows the second; the second and fourth are followed by the first; and in one case the fifth comes between the second and third.


(*13)  Except that, in the best and oldest Codices, Hebrews follows 2Thess. (instead of Philemon); while in one (that from which Cod. B was taken) Hebrews follows Galatians.



1) Romans come first in order of the three great doctrinal epistles (A1, A2, A3, ). And rightly so, for it contains the ABC of the believers education. Until its lesson is learned, we know and can know nothing. The Holy Spirit has placed it first in Canonical order because it lies at the threshold of all church teaching, and if we are wrong here we shall be wrong altogether.

The design and scope of the Epistle supply the key to a right interpretation, as is shown by the Structure of the Epistle as a whole.

The great subject is the Revelation of God’s wrath against sin, and of the ground upon which alone the sinner can stand in righteousness before Him. The fundamental text is “The just shall live by faith and it shows Jew and Gentile alike short of the standard of God’s glory.


Romans 1:17 (KJV) For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.


Romans 3:23 (KJV) For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;


All alike sinners, shut up under sin, and needing a Divine righteousness, the only difference being that to the Jew had been committed the oracles (utterances or revelations) of God.


   2) The prominent feature of the Epistle is the long doctrinal portion from 1:16—8:39. This shows that doctrine (instruction):is the important part and dominates the whole.


2 Timothy 3:16 (KJV) All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:


It reveals what God has done with “sins” and with “sin”; and how the saved sinner, taken out from the deepest degradation, is justified by faith,  and united to Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection-life. It teaches him that though his “old Adam” nature continues with him till the end, in ever present hostility to God, yet for those in Christ there is no judgement and, consequently, no separation “from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.”


3) Chapters 9-11 are dispensational, and explains to us God’s dealings with “Jew” and “Gentile”. The Jew for the time is being set aside, “until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in”, and during this period “blindness (hardness) in part is happened to Israel”.


Romans 11:25 (KJV) For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.


4) The remainder of the Epistle is taken up with practical counsel as to the believer’s life, and closes with the postscript concerning the “mystery  


Romans 16:25—26 (KJV)

25 Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began,

26 But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith:


5) The Epistle was written from Corinth in the spring of A.D 58, during the fourth year of Nero ; probably during Paul’s sojourn in Greece after the departure from Ephesus.


Acts 20:2—3 (KJV)

2 And when he had gone over those parts, and had given them much exhortation, he came into Greece,

3 And there abode three months. And when the Jews laid wait for him, as he was about to sail into Syria, he purposed to return through Macedonia.


It was sent by Phebe, “a servant of the church…at Cenchreć.”


Romans 16:1 (KJV) I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchreć:



01 I may be able to speak the languages of human beings and even of angels, but if I have no love, my speech is no more than a noisy gong or a clanging bell.

02 I may have the gift of inspired preaching; I may have all knowledge and understand all secrets; I may have all the faith needed to move mountains — but if I have no love, I am nothing.

03 I may give away everything I have, and even give up my body to be burnt — but if I have no love, this does me no good.

04 Love is patient and kind; it is not jealous or conceited or proud;

05 Love is not ill-mannered or selfish or irritable; love does not keep a record of wrongs;

06 Love is not happy with evil, but is happy with the truth.

07 Love never gives up; and its faith, hope, and patience never fail.

08 Love is eternal. There are inspired messages, but they are temporary; there are gifts of speaking in strange tongues, but they will cease; there is knowledge, but it will pass.

09 For our gifts of knowledge and of inspired messages are only partial;

10 But when what is perfect comes, then what is partial will disappear.

11 When I was a child, my speech, feelings, and thinking were all those of a child; now that I have grown up, I have no more use for childish ways.

12 What we see now is like a dim image in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. What I know now is only partial; then it will be complete — as complete as God's knowledge of me.

13 Meanwhile these three remain: faith, hope, and love; and the greatest of these is love.